US flag Official website of the Department of Homeland Security

Mobile Nav Button


Government Accountability Office (GAO) Reports

The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) is an independent, nonpartisan agency that works for Congress. At the request of congressional committees or subcommittees or when  mandated by public laws or committee reports, GAO supports congressional oversight by auditing agency operations. Below is a selected list of GAO reports relevant to CBP operations. For additional reports, please visit the GAO website.



Release Date


Combating Nuclear Smuggling: Risk-Informed Covert Assessments and Oversight of Corrective Actions Could Strengthen Capabilities at the Border

October 14, 2014


Unmanned Aerial Systems: Department of Homeland Security’s Review of CBP’s Use and Compliance with Privacy and Civil Liberty Laws and Standards

September 30, 2014


DHS OIG’s Structure, Policies, and Procedures are Consistent with Standards, but Areas for Improvement Exists

September 24, 2014


DHS Training: Improved Documentation, Resource Tracking, and Performance Measurement Could Strengthen Efforts

September 10, 2014


Actions Needed to Strengthen Management of Research and Development

September 9, 2014


Personnel Security Clearances: Additional Guidance and Oversight Needed at DHS and DOD to Ensure Consistent Application of Revocation Process

September 8, 2014


DHS: Continued Actions Needed to Strengthen Oversight and Coordination of Research and Development

July 31, 2014


Border Security: Opportunities Exist to Strengthen Collaborative Mechanisms along the Southwest Border

June 27, 2014


DHS Intelligence: Additional Actions Needed to Address Analytic Priorities and Workforce Challenges

June 4, 2014


Maritime Security: Progress and Challenges with Selected Port Security Programs

June 4, 2014


Trusted Travelers: Programs Provide Benefits, but Enrollment Processes Could Be Strengthened

May 30, 2014


2013 Sequestration: Selected Federal Agencies Reduced Some Services and Investments, While Taking Short-Term Actions to Mitigate Effects

May 28, 2014

GAO-14-532T DHS: Progress Made; Significant Work Remains in Addressing High-Risk Areas May 7, 2014


Homeland Security Acquisitions: DHS Could Better Manage its Portfolio to Address Funding Gaps and Improve Communications with Congress

April 17, 2014


Arizona Border Surveillance Technology Plan: Additional Actions Needed to Strengthen Management and Assess Effectiveness

March 12, 2014


Arizona Border Surveillance Technology Plan: Additional Actions Needed to Strengthen Management and Assess Effectiveness

March 3, 2014


Student and Exchange Visitor Program: DHS Needs to Assess Risks and Strengthen Oversight of Foreign Students with Employment Authorization

February 27, 2014


Border Security: DHS Needs to Strengthen Its Efforts to Modernize Key Enforcement Systems

February 6, 2014


DHS: Ammunition Purchases Have Declined Since 2009

January 13, 2014

GAO-14-228T DHS's Efforts to Improve Employee Morale and Fill Senior Leadership Vacancies December 12, 2013
GAO-14-38 Immigration Detention: Additional Actions Could Strengthen DHS Efforts to Address Sexual Abuse November 20, 2013
GAO-14-196T Maritime Security: Progress and Challenges in Key DHS Programs to Secure the Maritime Borders November 19, 2013
GAO-14-183T Information Technology: Leveraging Best Practices to Help Ensure Successful Major Acquisitions November 13, 2013
GAO-14-66 Information Technology: Agencies Need to Strengthen Oversight of Multibillion Dollar Investments in Operations and Maintenance November 6, 2013
GAO-14-32 Maritime Security: DHS Could Benefit from Tracking Progress in Implementing the Small Vessel Security Strategy October 31, 2013
GAO-13-853T Border Security: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Planning for a Biometric Air Exit System September 26, 2013
GAO-13-732 Department of Homeland Security: Opportunities Exist to Better Evaluate and Coordinate Border and Maritime Research and Development September 25, 2013
GAO-13-681 Combating Terrorism: DHS Should Take Action to Better Ensure Resources Abroad Align with Priorities September 25, 2013
GAO-13-846T Homeland Security: Observations on DHS's Oversight of Major Acquisitions and Efforts to Match Resources to Needs September 19, 2013
GAO-13-742 DHS Recruiting and Hiring: DHS is Generally Filling Mission-Critical Positions, but Could Better Track Costs of Coordinated Recruiting Efforts September 17, 2013
GAO-13-764 Supply Chain Security: DHS Could Improve Cargo Security by Periodically Assessing Risks from Foreign Ports September 16, 2013
GAO-13-718 Information Technology: Key Federal Agencies Need to Address Potentially Duplicative Investments September 12, 2013
GAO-13-768R Border Security: U.S. Customs and Border Protection Has Taken Steps to Address GAO's Recommendations Aimed at Ensuring Officers are Fully Trained August 28, 2013
GAO-13-769R Border Security: U.S. Customs and Border Protection Provides Integrity-Related Training to its Officers and Agents Throughout their Careers August 28,2013


Overstay Enforcement: Additional Actions Needed to Assess DHS's Data and Improve Planning for a Biometric Air Exit Program

July 30, 2013


U.S.-Mexico Border: CBP Action Needed to Improve Wait Time Data and Measure Outcomes of Trade Facilitation Efforts

July 24, 2013


Intellectual Property: Insights Gained from Efforts to Quantify the Effects of Counterfeit and Pirated Goods in the U.S. Economy

July 9, 2013


Border Security: Progress and Challenges in DHS Implementation and Assessment Efforts

June 27, 2013


Antidumping and Countervailing Duties: Key Challenges to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises' Pursuit of the Imposition of Trade Remedies

June 25, 2013


Immigration Enforcement: Preliminary Observations on DHS's Overstay Enforcement Effort

May 21, 2013


Department of Homeland Security: Opportunities Exist to Strengthen Efficiency and Effectiveness, Achieve Cost Savings, and Improve Management Functions

April 26, 2013


Border Security: Partnership Agreements and Enhanced Oversight Could Strengthen Coordination of Efforts on Indian Reservations

April 5, 2013


Information Sharing: Agencies Could Better Coordinate to Reduce Overlap in Field-Based Activities

April 4, 2013


Information Technology: DHS Needs to Enhance Management of Major Investments

April 19, 2013


Border Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Securing U.S. Borders

April 14, 2013


Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Fees: Major Changes Needed to Align Fee Revenues with Program Costs

March 1, 2013


Southwest Border Security: Data are Limited and Concerns Vary about Spillover Crime along the Southwest Border

February 26, 2013


Border Patrol: Goals and Measures Not Yet in Place to Inform Border Security Status and Resource Needs

February 26, 2013


Department of Homeland Security: Progress Made and Work Remaining after Nearly 10 Years in Operation

February 15, 2013


Sharing More Information Will Enable Federal Agencies to Improve Notifications of Sex Offenders’ International Travel

February 14, 2013


Border Patrol: Key Elements of New Strategic Plan Not Yet in Place to Inform Border Security Status and Resource Needs

December 10, 2013


DHS Strategic Workforce Planning: Oversight of Department-wide Efforts Should be Strengthened

December 3, 2012


Border Security: Additional Actions Needed to Strengthen CBP Efforts to Mitigate Risk of Employee Corruption and Misconduct

December 4, 2012


Civil Air Patrol Involved in Certain Missions, but DHS Should Assess the Benefits of Further Involvement

November 1, 2012


Combating Nuclear Smuggling: Megaports Initiative Faces Funding and Sustainability Challenges

October 31, 2012


An Implementation Strategy Could Advance DHS's Coordination of Resilience Efforts Across Ports and Other Infrastructure

October 25, 2012


Supply Chain Security: CBP Needs to Conduct Regular Assessments of Its Cargo Targeting System

October 25, 2012


DHS Needs to Enhance Management of Cost and Schedule for Major Investments

September 26, 2012


DHS Requires More Disciplined Investment Management to Help Meet Mission Needs

September 18, 2012


Maritime Security: Progress and Challenges 10 Years after the Maritime Transportation Security Act

September 11, 2012


Homeland Security: DHS Has Enhanced Procurement Oversight Efforts, but Needs to Update Guidance

September 11, 2012


Privacy: Federal Law Should Be Updated to Address Changing Technology Landscape

July 31, 2012


Nonproliferation: Agencies Could Improve Information Sharing and End-Use Monitoring on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Exports

July 30, 2012


Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Use in the National Airspace System and the Role of the Department of Homeland Security

July 19, 2012


Intelligence Community Personnel: Strategic Approach and Training Requirements Needed to Guide Joint Duty Program

June 20, 2012


Student and Exchange Visitor Program: DHS Needs to Assess Risks and Strengthen Oversight Functions

June 18, 2012


Terrorist Watchlist: Routinely Assessing Impacts of Agency Actions since the December 25, 2009, Attempted Attack Could Help Inform Future Efforts

May 31, 2012


Antidumping and Countervailing Duties: Management Enhancements Needed to Improve Efforts to Detect and Deter Duty Evasion

May 17, 2012


Aviation Security: Actions Needed to Address Challenges and Potential Vulnerabilities Related to Securing Inbound Air Cargo

May 10, 2012


Border Security: Opportunities Exist to Ensure More Effective Use of DHS’s Air and Marine Assets

March 30, 2012


Export Controls: Proposed Reforms Create Opportunities to Address Enforcement Challenges

March 27, 2012


Proliferation Security Initiative: Agencies Have Adopted Policies and Procedures but Steps Needed to Meet Reporting Requirement and to Measure Results

March 27, 2012


Border Security: Additional Steps Needed to Ensure that Officers are Fully Trained

December 9, 2011


Critical Infrastructure Protection: Cybersecurity Guidance is Available, but More can be Done to Promote it’s Use

December 9, 2011


Arizona Border Surveillance Technology: More Information on Plans and Costs is Needed before Proceeding

November 4, 2011


Department of Homeland Security: Progress Made and Work Remaining in Implementing Homeland Security Missions 10 Years after 9/11

September 7, 2011


Commercial Aviation: Program Aimed at High-Risk Parent Abductors Could Aid in Preventing Abductions

June 23, 2011


Secure Border Initiative: Controls over Contractor Payments for the Technology Component Need Improvement

May 25, 2011


Visa Waiver Program: DHS has Implemented the Electronic System for Travel Authorization, but Further Steps Needed to Address Potential Program Risks

May 5, 2011


Overstay Enforcement: Additional Mechanisms for Collecting, Assessing, and Sharing Data Could Strengthen DHS’s Efforts but Would have Costs

April 15, 2011


Border Security: DHS’s Visa Security Program Needs to Improve Performance Evaluation and Better Address Visa Risk Worldwide

March 31, 2011


Illicit Tobacco: Various Schemes are Used to Evade Taxes and Fees

March 7, 2011


Export Controls: Improvements Needed to Prevent Unauthorized Technology Releases to Foreign Nationals in the United States

February 2, 2011


Maritime Security: Federal Agencies have Taken Actions to Address Risks Posed by Seafarers, but Efforts can be Strengthened

January 14, 2011


H-1B Visa Program: Reforms are Needed to Minimize the Risks and Costs of Current Program

January 14, 2011


Employment Verification: Federal Agencies Have Taken Steps to Improve E-Verify, but Significant Challenges Remain

December 17, 2010


Border Security: Enhanced DHS Oversight and Assessment of Interagency Coordination is Needed for the Northern Border

December 17, 2010


Maritime Security: Ferry Security Measures Have Been Implemented, but Evaluating Existing Studies Could Further Enhance Security

December 3, 2010


Live Animal Imports: Agencies Need Better Collaboration to Reduce the Risk of Animal-Related Diseases

November 8, 2010


Moving Illegal Proceeds: Challenges Exist in the Federal Government’s Effort to Stem Cross-Border Currency Smuggling

October 25, 2010


Secure Border Initiative: DHS Needs to Strengthen Management and Oversight of its Prime Contractor

October 18, 2010


Supply Chain Security: DHS Should Test and Evaluate Container Security Technologies Consistent with All Identified Operations Scenarios to Ensure the Technologies Will Function as Intended

September 29, 2010


Combating Nuclear Smuggling: Inadequate Communication and Oversight Hampered DHS Efforts to Develop an Advanced Radiography System to Detect Nuclear Materials

September 15, 2010


Supply Chain Security: CBP Has Made Progress in Assisting the Trade Industry in Implementing the New Importer Filing Requirements, but Some Challenges Remain

September 10, 2010


Border Security: CBP Lacks the Data Needed to Assess the FAST Program at U.S. Northern Border Ports

July 10, 2010


International Trade: Exporters’ Use of the Earned Import Allowance Program for Haiti is Negligible because they Favor Other Trade Provisions

June 16, 2010


Alien Smuggling: DHS Needs to Better Leverage Investigative Resources and Measure Program Performance Along the Southwest Border

May 24, 2010


Homeland Security: US-VISIT Pilot Evaluations Offer Limited Understanding of Air Exit Operations

May 5, 2010


Secure Border Initiative: DHS Needs to Reconsider Its Proposed Investment in Key Technology Program

May 5, 2010


Intellectual Property: Observations on Efforts to Quantify the Economic Effects of Counterfeit and Pirated Goods

April 12, 2010


Maritime Security: Varied Actions Taken to Enhance Cruise Ship Security, but Some Concerns Remain

April 9, 2010


Review of the Department of Homeland Security’s Certification of the Secure Flight Program — Cost and Schedule Estimates

April 5, 2010


Iran Sanctions: Complete and Timely Licensing Data Needed to Strengthen Enforcement of Export Restrictions

April 4, 2010


Secure Border Initiative: DHS Needs to Address Testing and Performance Limitations that Place Key Technology Program at Risk

March 18, 2010


Secure Border Initiative: Testing and Problem Resolution Challenges Put Delivery of Technology Program at Risk

March 18, 2010


Border Security: Better Usage of Electronic Passport Security Features Could Improve Fraud Detection

February 22, 2010


Justice and Law Enforcement: CNMI Immigration and Border Control Databases

February 16, 2010


Information Sharing: Federal Agencies are Sharing Border and Terrorism Information with Local and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies, but Additional Efforts are Needed

December 18, 2009


Homeland Security: DHS’s Progress and Challenges in Key Areas of Maritime, Aviation, and Cybersecurity

December 2, 2009


Combating Nuclear Smuggling: Recent Testing Raises Issues About the Potential Effectiveness of Advanced Radiation Detection Portal Monitors

November 17, 2009


Supply Chain Security: Feasibility and Cost-Benefit Analysis Would Assist DHS and Congress in Assessing and Implementing the Requirement to Scan 100 Percent of U.S.-Bound Containers

October 30, 2009